Sabtu, 08 Oktober 2011

EXPLANATION TEXT

EXPLANATION TEXT
(Bilingual)
By ACHMAD BAIHAQI
READING:
Bila anda ingin menjabarkan suatu karangan atau penulisan secara ilmiah anda bisa  menggunakan Text Explanation:

Dalam Text Explanation ada bagian – bagian:
  1. A general Statement: Berisi tentang topik apa yang dibicarakan secara umum.
  2. A sequenced explanantion of why or how something happens: Berisi tentang penjelasan atau langkah – langkah mengapa dan bagaimana hal itu bisa terjadi secara alami, social dan budaya.
  3. Closing: Berisi tentang kesimpulan dari topik yang dibicarakan.

Purpose:
To explain the process involved in the formation and working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena

Generic Structure:

  1. A general statement
It contains a topic what will be discussed in general
  1. A sequenced explanation of why or how something happens
It contains the explanation or steps of why and how the thing can occur naturally, socially, and culturally.
  1. Closing
It contains the conclusion of the topic discussed

Berikut contoh Text Explanation:

The Richter & Mercalli Scales

Seismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative   terms.   The most widely known measurement is the Richter scale, a numerical logarithmic scale developed and introduced by American seismologist Charles R. Richter in 1935.
The purpose of the scale is to measure the amplitude of the largest trace recorded by a standard seismograph one hundred kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake. Tables have been formulated to demonstrate the magnitude of any earthquake from any seismograph. For example, a one-unit increase in magnitude translates into an increase of times thirty in released energy. To put that another way, each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude. Specifically, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times as strong as an earthquake of magnitude 5.
On the Richter scale, earthquakes of 6.75 are considered great and 7.0 to 7.75 are considered major. An earthquake that reads 4 to 5.5 would be expected to have caused localized damage, and those of magnitude 2 may be felt.
The other earthquake-assessment scale, introduced by the Italian seismologist Guiseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement. Earthquakes of Mercalli 2 or 3 are basically the same as those of Richter 3 or 4; measurements of 11 or 12 on the Mercalli scale can be roughly correlated with magnitudes of 8 or 9 on the Richter scale. In either case, the relative power or energy released by the earthquake can be understood, and the population waits to hear how bad the earthquake that just passed really was.
It is estimated that almost one million earthquakes occur each year, but most of them are so minor that they pass undetected. In fact, more than one thousand earthquakes of a magnitude of 2 or lower on the Richter scale occur every day.
(Taken from: Barron’s Educational Series)

Note:
Secara umum Tenses dalam Text Explanantion adalah:
  • Simple Present Tense
  • Conjunctions (Kata Sambung) : First, … Second,…. Third, ….. Finally, …..
  • Kalimat yang dituliskan berupa penjelasan dari topic atau judul yang dibicarakan dan bersifat memberitahukan keberadaannya secara ilmiah dan bisa bersifat social budaya yang berlaku.
  • Kalimat penutup berupa penjelasan / informasi tambahan.



<Kediriinternationalschools.blogspot.com>
  
GRAMMAR:

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES [RELATIVE CLAUSES]

1.             Man: 
         Subject (who)
        *   The man who teaches me is clever.
        Object (whom)
        *   The man whom I admired is clever.

2.             Things:
         Subject (which)
        *   The book which is covered blue is the best English book.
        Object (which)
        *   The book which I am reading now is the best English book.

3.             Possession:
         Subject/Object (whose)
        *   The man whose car is blue is my uncle.

4.             Time:
         (when)
        *   The day when I was born was Friday.

5.             Place:
         (where)
        *   The house where I was born is being renovated.


The following sentences in the bold italics are formal.
(Preposition + Who)
    • The lady to whom I introduced is very beautiful. =
    • The lady whom I introduced to is very beautiful.
    • The lady that I introduced to is very beautiful.
    • The lady I introduced to is very beautiful.
(Preposition + Which)
    • The book from which I learn contains a lot of knowledge. =
    • The book which I learn from contains a lot of knowledge.
    • The book that I learn from contains a lot of knowledge.
    • The book I learn from contains a lot of knowledge.
(Preposition + Which)
    • The month in which I was born was March. =
    • The month when I was born was March.
    • The month which I was born in was March.
    • The month that I was born in was March.
    • The month I was born in was March.

(Preposition + Which)
    • The house in which I live is being renovated. =
    • The house where I live is being renovated.
    • The house which I live in is being renovated.
    • The house that I live in is being renovated.
    • The house I live in is being renovated.

SPEAKING:

Persuading/Insisting:
Listen!
Look!
No, really!
No, I mean it!
No, honestly!    
Oh, come on!

I insist.
Let me, for a change.
Let me, for once.
There’s no sense in _________ing.
There’s no reason (for you) to ____
You don’t have to ____________
You shouldn’t have to _______     

Asking for and repeating information:
Why do you say that?
What makes you say that?
What’s the matter?
What’s wrong?
What’s the problem?

Supporting:
I want you success
I want you to ___________
I support you.
I support your idea.
I’m of your position to ________

Hope:
I hope you ___________
I hope to __________
I wish I could _______________
If only I could ____________
I was hoping ___________

Criticizing:
I (do) wish you had (not) ____ed.
As a result of what you _____ed.
I do wish you hadn’t ________
I do wish you didn’t __________
I really wish you ____________

Permission:
Could I possibly ___________?
Could I please ___________?
May I _______________?
Is it all right with me to _______?
Is it possible for me to _______?
Do you mind if I _____________?


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